Bladder <p>Bladder (ISSN 2327-2120) is an open-access journal committed to publishing peer-reviewed papers on cutting-edge and innovative research on bladder biology and disease.</p> <p>Bladder has been included by the following indexing and archiving services: PubMed Central (PMC), Google Scholar, CrossRef, OCLC, SHERPA/RoMEO and Portico.</p> <p><a href="">Read More</a></p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with<em> the Bladder</em> agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant <em>the Bladder</em> right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> <p> </p> (Editorial Office of Bladder) (Editorial Office of Bladder) Mon, 30 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 How brain diseases affect the lower urinary tract function? <p>This article reviewed brain mechanism of the lower urinary tract (LUT). Among autonomic nervous systems, LUT is unique in terms of afferent pathophysiology; bladder sensation is perceived soon after the storage phase and throughout the voiding phase. Within the brain, this is measured in experimental animals by the firing of single neurons and in humans by evoked potentials/functional neuroimaging. The evidence indicates that sphincter information goes up to the precentral motor cortex and other brain areas, and bladder information goes up to the insular cortex (IC)/anterior cingulate (ACG) and further to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Another LUT-specific phenomenon is efferent pathophysiology: detrusor overactivity (exaggerated micturition reflex) occurs in brain diseases such as stroke (focal disease) and dementia with Lewy bodies (diffuse diseases, may overlap with each other). With the turning off and on of the brain-switch of micturition (at the periaqueductal gray [PAG]), there is a bladder-inhibitory PFC-IC/ACG-hypothalamus-PAG pathway, with interconnections via the PFC with a PFC-nigrostriatal D1 dopaminergic pathway and a PFC-cerebellar pathway. Brain diseases that affect these areas may cause a loss of the brain's inhibition of the micturition reflex, leading to detrusor overactivity. This has a significant clinical impact on patients and requires appropriate management.</p> Ryuji Sakakibara, Tatsuya Yamamoto, Noritoshi Sekido, Setsu Sawai Copyright (c) 2023 Ryuji Sakakibara, Tatsuya Yamamoto, Noritoshi Sekido, Setsu Sawai Mon, 30 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000