Bladder <p>Bladder (ISSN 2327-2120) is an open-access journal committed to publishing peer-reviewed papers on cutting-edge and innovative research on bladder biology and disease.</p> <p>Bladder has been included by the following indexing and archiving services: PubMed Central (PMC), Google Scholar, CrossRef, OCLC, SHERPA/RoMEO and Portico.</p> <p><a href="">Read More</a></p> POL Scientific, LLC en-US Bladder 2327-2120 <p>Authors who publish with<em> the Bladder</em> agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant <em>the Bladder</em> right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> <p> </p> Chinese botulinum toxin A for the treatment of lower urinary tract dysfunction: It works just as well <p>The botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) is a neurotoxin produced by <em>Clostridium botulinum</em>. It causes botulism and represents the most powerful natural poison. In urological practice, the indications for BoNT/A therapy include neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO), idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB) or idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO), detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia (DSD), interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), urinary tract infections (UTI), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and, more recently, chronic prostatic pain (CPP). BoNT/A is not only conducive to the treatment of muscle spasticity but also effectively works on hyperalgesia associated with various disorders of the lower urinary tract, thanks to its anti-nociceptive properties. While Botox® (Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA) is currently being used across the globe, we have been using Chinese BoNT/A for many years for the treatment of DSD, NDO, idiopathic OAB, IC/BPS, BPH and UTI. Our experience showed that Chinese BoNT/A was as good as other BoNT/A products in terms of efficacy, safety, and tolerability. In this study, we explored the current and potential applications of Chinese BoNT/A in urology, and reviewed the background information regarding the toxin.</p> Fan Zhang Qinggang Liu Limin Liao Xiaojuan Li Xueping Zhang Copyright (c) 2022 Fan Zhang, Qinggang Liu, Limin Liao, Xiaojuan Li, Xueping Zhang 2022-09-14 2022-09-14 9 1 e47 e47 10.14440/bladder.2022.847 Safety and Effectiveness of Nustim System Implantation in Dogs <p class="a"><strong>Objectives:</strong> To verify the safety and effectiveness of a novel micro-implantable wireless nerve stimulation device in healthy adult beagles and evaluate the feasibility of using the device in clinical practice.</p> <p class="a"><strong>Methods:</strong> The stimulator was experimentally implanted into the quadriceps femoris of three adult beagles. The animals were subjected to training on daily basis for 14 days, and the threshold test was administered once a week. At the end, we analyzed the images of light microscopy and electron microscopy.</p> <p class="a"><strong>Results:</strong> The implantation was easy to perform and the whole stimulation system worked stably and reliably. The stimulation threshold was stable. During the process, the stimulator did not move or cause damage to adjacent tissues. The whole system showed a good biocompatibility with recipient animals. The stimulator could induce muscular contraction and enhance the motor function of muscles.</p> <p class="a"><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The preliminary results showed that the stimulator could be safely implanted into animal body, with good tissue compatibility, stability and reliability. In addition, it also worked well in eliciting muscle contraction. It promises to be used for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in future.</p> Xing Li Han Deng Zhaoxia Wang Hao Li Limin Liao Copyright (c) 2022 Xing Li, Han Deng, Zhaoxia Wang, Hao Li, Limin Liao 2022-09-14 2022-09-14 9 1 e49 e49 10.14440/bladder.2022.844 Nerve-spring technique could achieve a functional trifecta outcome of robotic intracorporeal studer’s orthotopic neobladder in the male <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: To summarize some key steps of functional improvement in robotic intracorporeal studer’s orthotopic neobladder (RISON) of males, especially for nerve-spring technique. We also presented the result of 1-year follow-up aimed to illustrate its functional trifecta outcomes.<br /><strong>Methods</strong>: Robotic radical cystectomy with intracorporeal studer’s orthotopic neobladder was performed on 33 male patients by the same surgeon from April 2018 to March 2019. Nerve-sparing technique had been used in 11 of the 33 patients. A prospectively maintained dataset was retrospectively searched and the related perioperative and follow-up data were analyzed. The functional trifecta outcomes referred to the freedom from recurrence, urinary continence and sexual function recovery after one year.<br /><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 33 males were included in our study. All perioperative information was recorded in detail. Thirty-two cases were confirmed to have negative surgical margin, except one pT3a case. And another case of incidental prostate cancer was diagnosed pathologically. All patients (100%) were recurrence-free one year after the operation. Eleven patients underwent nerve-sparing surgeries, including inter-fascial techniques or intra-fascial techniques. All these patients attained daytime continence (0 pad) at 1 month. With the nighttime continence, nerve-sparing group (2, 2 ,1) used fewer pads than other 22 cases (3, 3 ,2) at 1, 6 or 12 month(s) respectively. We defined urinary continence as 0 pad in daytime and no more than 1 pad in nighttime. The median preoperative score of International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-6) in the 11 cases was 24. The sexual function recovery was defined as IIEF-6 &gt; 20. The final trifecta rate was 54.5% and the median follow-up time lasted 17 months (range, 12 to 22 months). <br /><strong>Conclusions</strong>: RISON could be a safe and feasible choice of urinary diversion. Nerve sparing techniques might help the patients achieve a relatively higher functional trifecta rate.</p> Qiang Cheng Liangyou Gu Wenzheng Chen Xupeng Zhao Xin Ma Xiao Chang Qing Ai Hongzhao Li Copyright (c) 2022 Hongzhao Li 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 9 1 e50 e50 10.14440/bladder.2022.850 Treatment of stress urinary incontinence with a percutaneously implantable wireless microstimulator device (NuStim®) plus pelvic floor muscle exercises: a pilot study <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To evaluate the utility and safety of pelvic floor muscle exercises in combination with a wireless percutaneously implantable microstimulator device (NuStim®) for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence.<br /><strong>Methods:</strong> In this prospective self-controlled pilot trial, three patients aged 35‒75 years with incontinence symptoms were treated by pelvic floor muscle exercises plus implantation of NuStim® from June 2017 to March 2019. The patients received 25 weeks of pelvic floor training, during which the patients’ incontinence was quantitatively assessed by a 1-h pad test. Self-reported scores were used to rate the effect of treatment in terms of the quality of daily life, with pelvic floor muscle strength evaluated on the modified Oxford scale at each follow-up visit.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> All three patients (2 males and 1 female) completed the trial without dropouts. The results showed that their incontinence symptoms were alleviated, as measured by a decrease in the normalized weight of the 1-h pad test, which presented a significant linear trend (<em>P</em> = 0.0021). An intragroup analysis revealed that all participants achieved statistically significant improvement in terms of the 1-h pad test score at 25 weeks as compared with pre-training findings. Nonetheless, no significant difference was found between the results of the other follow-up points and the baseline before treatment (<em>P</em> = 0.058). Comparison of the secondary outcome variable scores in each participant showed no significant difference at the conclusion of the study.<br /><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Use of the NuStim® during pelvic floor muscle exercises resulted in significant improvement in incontinence symptoms. The device was shown to be useful and safe as an adjunct to the pelvic floor training for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence.</p> Fan Zhang Limin Liao Copyright (c) 2022 Fan Zhang, Limin Liao 2022-09-14 2022-09-14 9 1 e48 e48 10.14440/bladder.2022.845