Biomechanics of urinary bladder: slow-filling and slow-emptying cystometry and accommodation

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Wim A. van Duyl


accommodation, compliance, contractions, micromotions, urinary bladder


OBJECTIVE: In a concept of accommodation of detrusor pressure to volume as an autonomous potency of the bladder, a crucial physiological biomechanical role has been attributed to spontaneous contraction activity. This concept is experimentally investigated on pig bladder in vitro.
METHODS: Slowly emptying of not-stimulated pig bladders via a flow resistor has been recorded and the effect of spontaneous contractions on the tonic pressure during emptying by expulsion has been studied.
RESULTS: The expulsed volume can be separated in a reduction of elastic volume and of rest volume. Tonic pressure is determined by the elastic volume in combination with elastic compliance. In an accommodated state completely transient superimposed pressure waves affect rest volume not elastic volume. Accommodation of tonic detrusor pressure to bladder volume is based on equilibration between passive elongations and active transient contractions distributed in bladder wall.
CONCLUSION: Maintenance of a tonic accommodated detrusor pressure to a constant or slowly varying volume, obtained by a process of equilibration between passive elongations and active contractions, can be understood as an autonomous potency of a bladder. The earlier presented concept of active accommodation has been validated by the experiments. The pressure-volume relation of the bladder is fundamentally revised. Total volume V can be virtually separated in an elastic volume VE and a plastic or rest volume VR. Both parts change with V and in changing ratio. Tonic pressure marks a border between VE and VR.


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